- Time - co-owners must acquire the property at the same time.
- Title - co-owners must have the same title to the property. All conditions must apply all owners.
- Interest - co-owners must share equal interest in the property.
- Possession - co-owners must share equal right to possess the whole property.
If any one element is missing, the joint tenancy may be ruled ineffective, and the joint tenancy defaults to tenancy in common in equal shares.